Forward Into the Past
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Previous Suggestions

'So, where are we going?' Motivations and patterns of travel in Viking-Age Iceland
Learn about patterns of settlement and travel in Viking Age Iceland, and the importance of these journies to the people who made them.
Speaker: Rachel Backa

16th Century Italian Dance
A selection of 16th century Italian dances suitable for beginners and experienced dancers alike. Italian steps will be mentioned, but the focus will be on the figures.
Speaker: Marc Collins

A Working Day on a Victorian Farm and Estate
A lecture discussion on the working day in a Victorian household on a farm or an Estate. The day starts before the sun is up and finishes after dark ... sometimes well after dark. Includes a discussion of the seasonal rounds of field work and how they affect the working day. Household chores started before dawn as well and finished after dark also.
Speakers: Ken Cook, Margaret Trainor Cook

A brief history of everything harp: a workshop in two parts
This class will start off with a look at the history and development of the harp and harp music, with an emphasis on Ireland, Wales, and the bardic tradition. The second part of the workshop will be a brief lesson on how to play using modern techniques and strings. There will be two harps available for the first two people who sign up without one. There is a limit of five active participants (including the two with the loaner harps). More can sit in and listen if they like.
Class is limited to 5 people.   
Speaker: Melanie Burrett

Amber in the Viking World: technique and significance
This session will discuss the importance amber within the Norse world. It will discuss both carving methods, and possible symbolism and practical uses, ranging from beads and pendants, and amber spindle whorls.
Speaker: Sarah Backa

An introduction to Meyer's German Rappier. (2 hours)
This workshop will be an exploration of the basics of combat with the single handed sword as detailed by Joachim Meyer's A Thorough Description of the Free, Knightly and Noble Art of Fencing, Showing Various Customary Defenses, Affected and Put Forth with Many Handsome and Useful Drawings, published in 1570. By Meyer's time, much of the martial activities formerly practiced in earnest had transitions to sport which can be seen in both his illustrations with practice weapons and in the texts where he talks about the restrictions and formalities of practice. However there was one exception. Due in part to the rise of the Duel of Honor (as opposed to the Judicial Duel), thanks in part to what Meyer refers to as "Foreign Influence" the single handed sword, used for cutting and thrusting, has become fashionable as have the foreign methods of using it. In his teachings for this weapon, Meyer reintroduces the formerly restricted thrust to combat and provides an effective system of comb at based on the techniques of the traditional German methodology stemming from the Lichtenauer tradition.

Using the text from the book, participants will be lead through the basic wards, cuts and thrusts of Meyer's system. If there is enough time, participants will be lead through "devices" or choreographed sequences from the book. Participants will be expected to provide their own protective equipment which must include a fencing mask or equivalent protection for the face and head. While some practice swords will be available, students should have their own sword simulator which must be approved by the instructor before being used in class. A limited number of masks will also be available to be borrowed.
Speaker: John Enzinas

Analysis and drafting of patterns in Tablet Weaving
This session will look at the distinctive patterns of different tablet weaving techniques with the intention of reproducing historical designs or developing your own pattern.
Speaker: Rob Schweitzer

Arthurian Legends
Who was King Arthur? How did he come to be one of the most popular heroes in Western culture? This course will start with a look at the historical Arthur, then move through 1000 years of the development of the legend.
Speaker: Heather Dale

Beaded Flowers (2 hours)
Using wire and beads, these types of flowers date back to at least the 17th century where they were most often used as decoration on betrothal baskets. The potential uses for these items are extensive, ranging from decorations for the home or small objects, hair adornments, jewelry, etc. Kits will be available for purchase, but are not required leave a note in your registration if a listing of materials is preferred), these will include enough materials to make one or more small basic flowers. If possible, please bring needle-nosed pliers and a beading mat/piece of fabric with a nap; some tools will be available for use during the class. The beads being used are size 10 or 11, so please feel free to bring extra lighting and magnification tools if needed.
Class is limited to 10 people.   There is a materials fee of $5 for this class.
Speaker: Jackie Wyatt

Beginner's Ball
Many dances from the European courts and country side were actually quite easy, intended for everyone to join in as part of the social (and/or political) experience. This session has taken a sampling of such dances from England, France, and Italy, spanning approximately 200 years, to give you a very quick introduction to the various styles, but more importantly, to just dance and have fun, with minimal teaching (we'll learn them as we dance). Open to all skill levels. (if you can walk, you can dance)
Speaker: David Learmonth

Brief History of Pottery
This is intended to be a brief and biased slide show of interesting and relevant pottery styles up to 1650 AD. The intention is to showcase shapes and colours appropriate for use within the re-enactment community. There are a few surprises and interesting deviations along the way.
Speaker: Karina Bates

Chainmail - Beyond the Basics (2 hours)
Beyond the basics: mail is the most versatile, flexible armour ever developed. Able to be shaped to every part of the human form mail can also be the basis for wonderful jewelry. In this class you will learn how to make the King Chain, French Rope, and Foxtail patterns. A basic understanding of chain mail is required. Bring two pairs of pliers. In addition to more complex patterns with standard rings this session will explore the use of smaller rings and precious metal rings in decorative patterns and jewelry. Bring two pairs of pliers.
Class is limited to 10 people.   
Speaker: Jerry Penner

Chainmail for Beginners
Imagine a shirt made of thousands of tiny metal rings, all linked together to form a cloth impenetrable by sword. Why was chainmail the ultimate armour for warriors for over a thousand years? Chain mail is so versatile it is still in use today. You can see it on divers in shark-infested waters and on the hands of your local butcher. While you learn to knit your own bracelet that you get to take home we'll discuss the historical background of this wonderful armour. Please bring two pairs of pliers.
Class is limited to 10 people.   
Speaker: Jerry Penner

Costuming Research (1000 - 1800 A.D)
Not sure where to start researching that costume? Come learn how to do research using traditional library search techniques and some not so traditional ways.
Speaker: Amy Menary

DARC goes to L.A.M.; Integrating Historic Re-enactors into an Existing Parks Canada Presentation or How We Spent Our Summer Vacation.
This panel discussion will highlight the Dark Ages Re-creation Company's 2010 major presentation at L'Anse aux Meadows NHSC in Newfoundland. This 10 day living history presentation was to help mark the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the archaeological site in Newfoundland. The panel will address the experimental archaeology that occured on-site, lessons learned in our time there and issues of interpretation.
Speakers: Darrell Markewitz, Steven Strang, Karina Bates, Dave Cox, Karen Peterson

Dances from Tudor England (Gresley Dances)
Dating from around 1500, the Gresley dances are the earliest known English dances. Rediscovered in 1996, these are fun, easy dances for groups of two and three. The class will cover the history of the manuscript, a discussion of the reconstruction process and 3-4 of the dances described by the manuscript. No prior dance experience is necessary.
Speaker: Richard Schweitzer

Designing for your Recipient
While the SCA's concept of award scrolls is generally not historical, it's still possible to create art inspired by book page illuminations or other sources relevant to the time and region. For those interested in creating presentation pieces in historical style, this session will offer a look at sources from a number of times and places.
Speaker: Peter Westergaard

Dress the Anglo Saxon and Viking man
A demonstration and discussion about typical male Anglo Saxon and Viking (850 to 1000 AD) clothing from the inside out. We'll talk about how the styles of dress were similar and how they differed.
Speaker: Beth Patchett

Dress the Anglo Saxon and Viking women
A demonstration and discussion about typical female Anglo Saxon and Viking (850 to 1000 AD) clothing from the inside out. We'll talk about how the styles of dress were similar and how they differed.
Speaker: Beth Patchett

Drinking the Pipe; Tobacco and its Consumption though the Ages.
Wrapped in stigma and always going up in smoke tobacco has played a major role in the development of the New World. This lecture will explore the beginnings of tobacco consumption in the Old World and how it fueled exploration, slavery and international trade.
Speaker: Nathan Laanstra

Early Medieval Warfare, Arms and Armour 1000-1200 CE
This session will examine the arms, armour, and tactics employed in Western European warfare during the early part of the Middle Ages, approximately 1000-1200 CE. There will be a head to toe examination of the armour as well as an overview of the different weapons employed by the early medieval warrior. In addition there will be a discussion of how these weapons were used on the battlefield and how they fitted into the tactics of warfare from that era. This class is a continuation of the class on the development of knighthood.
Speakers: David Stamper, Ian Walsh

Elizabethan Embroidered Slips
Popular from the mid-16th to the mid-17th centuries, slips were embroidered motifs on canvas which were cut out and applied to various backing fabrics. Many of the surviving examples found today are of floral and plant motifs with many of the images having been copied or inspired by herbals, hence the use of the term 'slips.' Kits will be available to purchase for $10, however participants are welcome to bring their own materials. Kits will include an embroidery hoop, needles, floss, 18-count evenweave linen with a pre-drawn image, and full-colour handout. A lightbox and selected other images will be available for those bringing their own materials. Beginners are welcome and participants are encouraged to bring extra light sources if they wish. There is a limit of 10 kits, however auditors and those who bring their own material are welcome.
Class is limited to 10 people.   There is a materials fee of $10 for this class.
Speaker: Jackie Wyatt

Energy sources in the Victorian Age
An exploration of the available sources of energy and how they were exploited. Wood, coal, charcoal, steam, water, wind and petroleum products were some of the energy sources available to the Victorians. Energy sources available to Upper Canada during the Victorian Age will be contrasted with those of Victorian England. This will be a lecture/discussion and is part of a series of lecture discussions on the Victorian Age.
Speaker: Ken Cook

Feet firmly in the past - Shoes from the Viking Age 800 - 1050 (2 hours)
Taking examples from Viking Age artefacts from England, Norway, Denmark, and Germany, this session will present an overview of the styles, methods of construction, materials, and likely wearers of shoes at the end of the first millennium in Northern Europe. A simple method of pattern making will be demonstrated as well as the more common stitches employed during shoe construction. If time allows, attendees will be guided through the process of producing shoe patterns of their own.
Speaker: Marcus Burnham

Flint and Steel Fire Striking
Learn how to build a fire, and light it using flint and steel. This will be a hands on course, where you'll get to try the techniques and practice making fire. Note that this involves "real fire", so breathing smoke and burning your fingers are potential dangers.
Speaker: Mark Patchett

Glass Bead Making - Beyond the basics
No beginners, please. This session is for those who have learned in other years and would like a 15 minute space to practice a more advanced technique with some advice from the speaker. Millifiori, stringer making, applying stringers, feathering, dots and lines are all techniques that can be covered in this session.
Class is limited to 6 people.   There is a materials fee of $3 for this class.
Speaker: Jean Ross

Hand Building Pottery
Before there were potters wheels, clay was made into vessels for daily use by hand building. This is a hands on session intended to teach the non-potter how pots were created by using pinch, coil and slab techniques. Participants will make a small pinch pot and add coils or slabs in order to "grow" their pot. A fee of $15 will be required from participants wishing to keep their creations. This fee will cover materials, firing and return shipping to you (within 2 weeks of the conference)
Class is limited to 40 people.   There is a materials fee of $15 for this class.
Speaker: Penni Stoddart

Herbal Workshop (2 hours)
In this two-hour workshop, we will discuss the use of humors and their application to not only herbology, but the lifestyle of people in the Middle Ages. Then, in groups, you will create your own recipe and make your own something or other. There is a fee with this course, but you will take home a good sample of your very own concoction. "O, mickle is the powerful grace that lies - In plants, herbs, stones and their true quantities. For naught so vile that on the earth doth live - But to the earth some special good doth give." William Shakespeare
Class is limited to 14 people.   There is a materials fee of $3 for this class.
Speaker: Paddy Gillard-Bentley

Hnefatafl - A Viking Good Time!
Around the world known by the Vikings one could find local variations of hnefatafl being played in many countries. This game blends some of the strategy of chess with some of the simplicity of merrels. Come join us for a brief look at the archaeology and rules, and then some time to play the speakers or your session mates. Suitable for ages 10 and up - drinking and gambling can be added when you play at home. Notes for this session are posted.
Speakers: Neil Peterson, Kate Burnham

Introduction to Glass Bead Making (2 hours)
This class will cover the style of bead making known as Lampwork. A history of bead making, their uses, and trade. The modern process of lampworking to make a bead will also be demonstrated. This session is restricted to those aged 16 or older.
Class is limited to 6 people.   There is a materials fee of $5 for this class.
Speaker: Jean Ross

Introduction to Naalbinding
This will be a hands-on class aimed at beginners. Come learn the basics of naalbinding, ( sometimes called single-needle knitting ) a textile craft used in medieval times. We will cover a basic naalbinding stitch you could use to make a hat, socks or mittens. Please bring (real) wool yarn and a naalbinding or blunt tapestry needle. Some materials will be available for those without. If time permits, we will look at some more advanced stitches.
Class is limited to 8 people.   
Speaker: Mark Patchett

Introduction to Tablet Weaving (2 hours)
This is a hand's on practicum where participants will be taught the basics of tablet weaving. Tablet weaving is a narrow-band weaving technique that is commonly used for belts, straps and decorative edging on clothes. The technique (also known as card weaving) developed independently in a number of countries and has been used for over a thousand years. Participants will learn how to string their own bands and will learn a variety of pattern techniques. Notes for this session are posted.
There is a materials fee of $12 for this class.
Speaker: Rob Schweitzer

Introduction to the Society for Creative Anachronism
This session is designed to introduce attendees to the world of the Society for Creative Anachronism, the international medieval research-and-recreation organization which gave rise to the talents behind the Forward Into The Past Medieval Collegium. Learn more about the SCA as a whole, as well as some specifics about how we recreate our chosen periods of medieval history. A look at the known world of the SCA and how to create a personna. The SCA's private langauage and manners will also be covered.
Speaker: Brendan Smith

Introduction to the stitches on Bayeux Tapestry
The Bayeux Tapestry is not a tapestry at all, but rather an embroidered historical account measuring approximately .5 m wide and 68 m long. With hundreds of figures, animals and designs, it is a treasure trove of embroidery patterns. Learn the stitches used on the Bayeux Tapestry, as well as tricks for doing curves, accents, colours, transferring patterns.
Class is limited to 6 people.   There is a materials fee of $5 for this class.
Speaker: Nina Bates

Italian White-Vine Capitals (2 hours)
Want to try your hand at a 15th-century style of illumination, but intimidated? This style is easy to apply and looks very elegant. We'll create a single capital letter. Bring you own brushes and trays if possible, some will be available for loan.
Class is limited to 20 people.   There is a materials fee of $1 for this class.
Speaker: Peter Westergaard

Large Menu Planning
A practical guide to planning a large menu. Whether it is for a Wedding, Banquet or Medieval Feast using numbers as small as 12 to as large as 200. Budgeting, food choices, seating arrangements and the like for your situations will be discussed. Bring a thumb drive or accessible email for worksheets to be given to participants.
Speakers: Jean Ross, Martin Ross

Lusty Kings, Drunken Bishops, and Fool's Gold: Humor and Morality in Merovingian Gaul
This lecture will examine the use of comedic anecdotes in the Histories of Gregory of Tours (d.594) and how they serve to reinforce the moral standards Gregory establishes for the Christian elite of the Frankish kingdoms. Underlying his stories of sexually depraved kings, high-living bishops, and assassins who fall asleep on the job is an awareness that in a Germanic society that prized personal honor, ridicule was an effective deterrent against immoral behavior. By narrating the shame endured by members of the elite who behaved badly, Gregory turned his moral ideals into implicit rules for living, the violation of which had serious social consequences.
Speaker: Alicia McKenzie

Make a Bracelet (2 hours)
This beginners' workshop will enable the participant to create a bracelet using a simple but prevalent compositional element: the 's-hook'. This component was as useful to the ancients as it is today - easy to learn, tricky to master! We will be working with copper, brass, and simple beads.
Class is limited to 12 people.   There is a materials fee of $2 for this class.
Speaker: Erhard Kruger

Making Antler Rings (2 hours)
Appropriate knives will be available for use, and can also be purchased at a cost of $15 each. Bone is a hard material, this course is not suited to children.
Class is limited to 6 people.   There is a materials fee of $5 for this class.
Speaker: Steven Strang

Making Musical Instruments (2 hours)
This class will examine simple instruments common to the Viking period and Middle Ages and discuss techniques in building them using a variety of period and modern tools and techniques. For those interested in making a few simple instruments on site there will be a materials fee.
There is a materials fee of $2 for this class.
Speaker: Richard Schweitzer

Meaningful Scratches
A hands-on course in Runic and Ogham writing. The Runic alphabets were the local forms of writing in the Viking, Anglo Saxon and other Germanic cultures. Ogham was an alphabet peculiar to the Celtic inhabitants of the British Isles. Both were developed to be written with a knife rather than a pen. Participants should bring a small, sharp, single-edged knife, wood will be provided and some loaner knives will be available. No woodworking experience necessary, but children must be accompanied by a parent or guardian.
Class is limited to 10 people.   
Speaker: Steven Strang

Norse Jewellery ... NO - not the bead guy ... (2 hours)
This class will be about Norse stamp-pattern silver jewellery. Participants will learn and discuss various topics regarding this unique form of jewellery found in abundance in Norse-era silver hoards. Photos of various well documented silver hoards such as the Cuerdale Hoard, the Huxley Hoard, the Vale of York Hoard, the Harrowgate Hoard, the Wieringen Hoard and others will be examined with special attention given to the styles, motifs and patterns used in these extant examples of stamped jewellery. We will also discuss the importance of silver as a trade commodity in the Norse-era. Participants will have a chance to examine some contemporary examples of stamped jewellery, the stamps used to make them and receive instruction on the process of making this style of jewellery and the stamps used in the process. Participants will then have an opportunity to make their own stamped bracelet or Thor's hammer using copper sheet. Tools, safety glasses and materials will be provided - participants are not required to bring their own unless personal safety glasses are preferred. Please wear natural fibre clothing (i.e. cottons, wool, etc.) as a propane torch will be used to anneal the projects. Participants are warned that this class will involve working with potentially high temperature metal. Notes for this session are posted.
Class is limited to 10 people.   There is a materials fee of $10 for this class.
Speaker: Sam Falzone

Queens & Peasants
How to Cope with a Queen
This paper examines the various difficulties faced by Mary Tudor, Elizabeth Tudor, Mary Queen of Scots and to an extent Jane Gray-Dudley upon coming to the throne as queens regnant. These female monarchs had to redefine the meaning of Queen in terms of regnant concerning their gender roles and societal expectations, the state of affairs left to them by their predecessors, and the various challengers to their throne. The question of titles was a problem Mary Tudor faced, paving the way for her sister later. All of the queens had to deal with the question of marriage and heirs, and each dealt with it in their own way to various degrees of success. How these women interacted with each other is also important because it is reflecting the societal expectations as well as the attempts at being 'princely'. In the end these reigning women not only had to deal with the usual issues of setting the realm straight and preparing for the next in line, they also had to create for themselves a role that was equal to a king but still feminine and acceptable.
Peasant, Plot, and Plough
This paper examines the correlation between advances in farming technology and related infrastructure, and the level of specialization of occupations in medieval towns. Major technological advancements forming the focus will include: the advancement from light to heavy ploughs; mill technology, oxen vs. horses and related tack; the three field system, and crop rotation. The occupations with the most focus will be traditional cottage industries such as spinning and weaving, tanning, and brewing beer. These crafts have been chosen because they were common for most peasants to practice, but became more specialized and advanced in towns as demand rose.

Speakers: Andrew Szucs, Samantha James

Re-enactment and Historical Martial Arts
This lecture is intended to address several issues that arise between the academic and re-enactment communities. Specifically, it will address the re-enactment community's research into Historical Martial Arts. A particular tension between these communities seems to exist concerning this research - a tension which seems brought on by a skeptical challenge to the re-enactment community's research methods. This lecture is intended to provide both communities with a method of viewing and interacting with Historical Martial Arts in a way that is fruitful for both communities. This will allow the discussion to take place on common ground, and begin to unite the exceptional efforts of both dedicated groups of men and women. This lecture is intended to complement Brian McIlmoyle's Sword and Buckler class; demonstrations of sword and buckler/shield research will be included.
Speaker: Aaron Bolarinho

Run for fear, spring cleaning's here! Victorian approaches to housework.
It's spring, the time when every Victorian housewife's mind turns to cleaning. Up come the carpets, down with the curtains and even the marital bed is out on the front lawn "airing"! Supper is delayed and husbands hide away in taverns. What is it really all about? This is a light-hearted introduction to the Victorian cleaning regime based on period advice manuals and diaries.
Speaker: Catherine Ollerhead DeSantis

SCA Combat Demonstration
Come and watch as brave Knights, Squires and Men at Arms do battle in a Medieval Tournament. This will be a display of armoured combat, by the Society for Creative Anachronism. We will spend some time looking at the weapons and armour we use for tournament combat, and discuss how combat works in the SCA. There will be a chance for the spectators to come have a closer look at the arms & armour involved.
Speakers: Brendan Smith, Mark Patchett

Settling Down in Waterloo
This session will begin with the situation before the white invaders came to this area: what natives had lived here during the 15th and 16th centuries; what happened to them in the 17th century; what later natives came to the area and were present when whites first arrived. There are three or four main streams of early pioneers to the area the most famous being the Pennsylvania Mennonites in the 1800-1820 era the session with cover their purchase, migration and settlement in Waterloo Township. Wilmot township was a whole different story with Amish arriving from Europe in a carefully planned project. North Dumfries township and Galt were settled by entirely different peoples, mainly Scots, attracted here by a planned community structure. Wellesley township and Woolwich townships were less organized areas of settlement but will be looked at.
Once we have the township areas settled, we return to Waterloo township with its main communities of Berlin and Waterloo to discuss their differing developments including subsequent migration of Europeans. The interactions between old and new and between those from different countries will be explored. We will try to correct some of the errors that have plagued local history writers as they try to interpret the 19th century development. If time permits, we may also look into the 20th century Berlin/Kitchener name change and the tensions that plagued the city in 1915/1916.
Speaker: rych mills

Simple Medieval Dice and Table Games
8 different dice games, and two easy medieval games using the backgammon table - suitable for children aged 5 to 95! Gambling optional. We will have take-home versions of the games available for a small cost if the participants are interested, or bring out your own backgammon set.
Speakers: Jo Duke, Kate Burnham

So - You Want to be a Blacksmith - A beginners historical guide'
A fast look at the tools and equipment of the blacksmith. We will compare what is known about historical practice and compare it to what is considered 'traditional' practice in a modern blacksmith shop. Will include some practical advice for the new smith wanting to get started : tools, materials, references. Lecture with illustrations. Notes for this session are posted.
Speaker: Darrell Markewitz

Soles and Heels: The Development of the Modern Lasted Shoe
The late Medieval period in Europe saw the gradual development of the hard soled, heeled footware recognizeable as the modern shoe. Changes in technology eventually led to one of the first 'modern' industries in both the Old and New Worlds and laid some of the groundwork for the Industrial Revolution. This session will include a talk on the history of the shoe between 1700 and 1900, the period of maximum tchnological change, and a short demonstration of traditional cobbling, both before and during the 'lasted shoe' period.
Speaker: Peter Monahan

Spinning - Handcarding and Blending Fibres for Colour and Composition
Handcarders allow a spinner to use fleece rather than commercial rovings. Learn how to handcard a variety of fibres to use with drop spindles and spinning wheels. Blending different fibres together for specific purposes and blending for colours will also be included. Please bring handcarders if you have them and a drop spindle or spinning wheel. (2 dog slicker brushes from the dollar store will work in a pinch for inexpensive experimentation)
Class is limited to 6 people.   There is a materials fee of $6 for this class.
Speaker: Nina Bates

The Benevolence of manners
Based on a book of the same name this session Will be a discussion arguing the differences between Victorian and modern manners. The discussion will explore if there are difference and why and how they came to be. Were good manners strictly for the wealthy classes? Can we go back? Are manners still relevent, or were they ever?
Speaker: Margaret Trainor Cook

The Development of the Knight in the Early Middle Ages
This session will examine the origins of what became the important medieval institution of Knighthood as well as tracing its development in the early part of the Middle Ages. The session will also look at the rise of Feudalism and its connections with the development of knighthood. A second session will follow discussing the arms, armour and tactics of early medieval warfare.
Speaker: David Stamper

The Evolution Of Archery Into The Modern Age
A survey of archery and how it has developed into the modern age. Of specific focus will be the development of the archery technology, the archaeology and history of archery, and interesting facts.
Speaker: Simon Newcombe

The First Stage: The Officers of the London Garrison and the Theatre Royal
Following the abortive march on Toronto by William Lyon Mackenzie and his followers during the Rebellions of 1837, Britain felt it was prudent to better protect its colonies in the Canadas. With Mackenzie still alive and agitating from the United States, and tensions rising at the border, the Imperial government took no chances. Troops were sent to seven strategic points in upper Canada: Toronto, Brockville, Kingston, Hamilton, Amherstburg, St. Thomas, and London - the last three of which were considered most susceptible to disaffection and incursion. Upon their arrival, they established large garrisons, and remained more than 15 years. Amidst reports of border skirmishes with the few self-styled Patriots foolhardy enough to cross the border, the London garrison waited for the major offensive. It never came. In the meantime, they established the Theatre Royal.

It was traditional for British garrisons in the Canadas to set up theatres wherever they went. Theatre helped to pass the time and maintain some semblance of the lifestyle the officers were used to in Britain. The military theatricals were performed between November and April. The late springs, summers, and early autumns were spent in cricket, racing, hunting, shooting, painting, and similar pastimes, leaving balls and theatricals for the deeps of the London winter.
Speaker: Mark Tovey

The History of Ogham
Ogham, the writing system of the priestly class of Ireland, has mystified and intrigued Celt-ophiles for hundreds of years. This class will attempt to trace its roots, development, and possible historical significance through current scholarly articles and debate, and the examination of primary sources.
Speaker: Melanie Burrett

The History of the Rom (Gypsies)
Brief history of the Rom from India on, with some discussion as to timelines and countries visited. If time permits, there will be a discussion on culture and clothing.
Speaker: Karina Bates

The use of the Buckler and small Shield in single combat with Swords.
This practical class will focus on the principles of combat with the sword and Buckler and the Sword and Small Shield. The focus of this class will be the sword and buckler and it's use as a self defense system. Principle guards and foundational plays will be demonstrated and practiced to provide a foundation in this simple and effective combat system. Tower Manuscript I.33 forms the foundational source for this workshop. In addition we will look at how this system relates to and differs from the use of the small "heater" shield. In addition we will briefly look at the use of Spear and Shield. Swords and Bucklers for 10 people will be supplied But if you have your own you are welcome to bring them. Light hand protection and a fencing mask are expected equipment. A very limited number of fencing masks will be available to be borrowed.
Speaker: Brian McIlmoyle

Tree of Life - Myth & Symbolism (2 hours)
The Tree of Life or World Tree has appeared in myths, stories and legends around the world since ancient times. During this workshop, you will discover the diverse cultural references to the tree of life throughout the ages, while creating your own unique pendant to take home with you. Your kit will contain everything you need, including your choice of gemstone chips (peridot, citrine, amethyst, quartz) and a colour printout of the instructions.
Class is limited to 10 people.   There is a materials fee of $10 for this class.
Speaker: Bonnie Coursolle

Viking Age 101 - A fast overview of the material culture of the Norse
A look at the artifacts remaining from the Viking Age, and what they can suggest to us about daily life of the Norse. Sometimes what they *don't* actually tell us! An overview of tools and materials, what might have been common versus what might have been rare or odd. A consideration of good (and bad!) references. Lecture with physical samples, illustrations.
Speaker: Darrell Markewitz

Viking Combat Demonstration
Watch a display of reenactment style combat by members of The Vikings. Sometimes called "Live Steel" combat -- this involves blunt steel weapons and authentic looking armour, as would have been used by Normans, Saxons and Vikings around 1000 years ago.
Speakers: Ilya Shkarupin, Jim Byrnes, Jarek Sobczyk, Nadim Michaty

Viking Era Beads
Ibn Fadlan tells us that the Norsefolk prized beads above other ornaments. Why is it then that beads are so badly done in the reenactment community, and at living history museums? In this session we will review photos, replicas, and research to explore the materials, colours, shapes, sizes, decorative patterns and more of viking era beads. We will explore how preferences changed over time and how minor adjustments to a necklace can be used to precisely place a necklace in time. At the end of the session the goal will be for everyone to be able to visit their local bead store and build a necklace that suits their interest. Notes for this session are posted.
Speaker: Neil Peterson

Vocal Projection
Ever felt like your voice was being strained? Does stage fright hinder your presentations? Are you a storyteller, academic lecturer, singer or toastmaster who has trouble commanding attention? Learn how the entire vocal system works, from the soles of your feet to the top of your head. This "hands-on, breathe-in" course will explore common vocal concerns and help you free your natural voice. Please wear non-restricting clothes if possible.
Speaker: Heather Dale

Warps for Weighting
A hands on exploration of different methods of making a warp for a Warp Weighted Loom, in particular how to make a tablet woven and plain weave header without creating a frustration of knots.
Speaker: Jo Duke

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